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Adding protein to carbohydrate intake immediately after exercise may be helpful for improving recovery of glycogen (carbohydrate) stores after exercise, according to some,1, 2, 3 though not all,4, 5, 6, 7, 8 controlled studies. Preliminary studies have suggested that protein supplements may have biological effects that could improve muscle growth resulting from strength training, especially if liquid supplements (typically containing at least 10 grams of protein in addition to varying amounts of carbohydrate) are taken immediately after exercise.9, 10, 11 However, controlled studies have found no advantage of protein supplementation (up to about 100 grams per day or about 14 grams immediately following exercise) for improving strength or body composition as long as the diet already supplies typical amounts of protein and calories.12, 13, 14 In one preliminary study, elderly men participating in a 12-week strength training program took a liquid supplement containing 10 grams of protein (part of which was soy protein), 7 grams of carbohydrate and 3 grams of fat either immediately following exercise or two hours later.15 Men taking the supplement immediately following exercise experienced significantly greater gains in muscle growth and lean body mass than those supplementing two hours later, but strength gains were no different between the two groups. A controlled study of female gymnasts found that adding 0.45 grams of soy protein to a diet that was adequate in protein during an 8-week training program did not improve lean body mass compared to a placebo.16 No research has compared different sources of protein to see whether one source, such as soy protein, has a better or more consistent effect on exercise recovery or the results of strength training.
Soy isoflavones have been reported to reduce thyroid function in some people.17 A preliminary trial of soy supplementation among healthy Japanese, found that 30 grams (about one ounce) per day of soybeans for three months, led to a slight reduction in the hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland.18 Some participants complained of malaise, constipation, sleepiness, and even goiter. These symptoms resolved within a month of discontinuing soy supplements. However, a variety of soy products have been shown to either cause an increase in thyroid function19 or produce no change in thyroid function.20 The clinical importance of interactions between soy and thyroid function remains unclear. However, in infants with congenital hypothyroidism, soy formula must not be added, nor removed from the diet, without consultation with a physician, because ingestion of soy may interfere with the absorption of thyroid medication.21
Most research, including animal studies, report anticancer effects of soy extracts,22 though occasional animal studies have reported cancer-enhancing effects.23 The findings of several recent studies suggest that consuming soy might, under some circumstances, increase the risk of breast cancer. When ovaries have been removed from animals—a situation related to the condition of women who have had a total hysterectomy—dietary genistein has been reported to increase the proliferation of breast cancer cells.24 When pregnant rats were given genistein injections, their female offspring were reported to be at greater risk of breast cancer.25 Although premenopausal women have shown decreases in estrogen levels in response to soy,26, 27 pro-estrogenic effects have also been reported.28 When pre-menopausal women were given soy isoflavones, an increase in breast secretions resulted—an effect thought to elevate the risk of breast cancer.29 In yet another trial, healthy breast cells from women previously given soy supplements containing isoflavones showed an increase in proliferation rates—an effect that might also increase the risk of breast cancer.30
Of 154 healthy postmenopausal women who received 150 mg of soy isoflavones per day for five years, 3.9% developed an abnormal proliferation of the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia). In contrast, none of 144 women who received a placebo developed uterine hyperplasia.31 Although no case of uterine cancer was diagnosed during the study, endometrial hyperplasia is a potential forerunner of uterine cancer. The amount of isoflavones used in this study is two to three times as much as that used in many other studies. Nevertheless, the possibility exists that long-term use of isoflavones could cause uterine hyperplasia, and women taking isoflavones should be monitored appropriately by their doctor.
Some postmenopausal women taking the soy isoflavone genistein have experienced gastrointestinal side effects (abdominal pain, epigastric pain, dyspepsia, vomiting, or constipation).32
Soy contains a compound called phytic acid, which can interfere with mineral absorption.
Certain medicines interact with this supplement.
|Replenish Depleted Nutrients|
|Reduce Side Effects|
|Potential Negative Interaction|
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The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.