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Colon cancer is a malignancy in the colon. It is characterized by unregulated replication of cells creating tumors, with the possibility of some of the cells spreading to other sites (metastasis).
This article includes a discussion of studies that have assessed whether certain vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other dietary ingredients offered in dietary or herbal supplements may be beneficial in connection with the reduction of risk of developing colon cancer.
This information is provided solely to aid consumers in discussing supplements with their healthcare providers. It is not advised, nor is this information intended to advocate, promote, or encourage self prescription of these supplements for cancer risk reduction or treatment. Furthermore, none of this information should be misconstrued to suggest that dietary or herbal supplements can or should be used in place of conventional anticancer approaches or treatments.
It should be noted that certain studies referenced below, indicating the potential usefulness of a particular dietary ingredient or dietary or herbal supplement in connection with the reduction of risk of colon cancer, are preliminary evidence only. Some studies suggest an association between high blood or dietary levels of a particular dietary ingredient with a reduced risk of developing colon cancer. Even if such an association were established, this does not mean that dietary supplements containing large amounts of the dietary ingredient will necessarily have a cancer risk reduction effect.
In Western countries, cancers of the colon and rectum account for more new cancer cases each year than any other site except the lung. Although the genetic susceptibility is low, some families have a predisposition for colon cancer that usually occurs before age 40. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease as well as familial polyposis, are disorders that, to varying degrees, increase the risk of colon cancer.
The initial symptoms of colon cancer depend on the location of the tumor. Cancer in the portion of the colon nearest the left side of the body and areas close to the rectum are the most common cause for a change in bowel habits and consistency of the stool. Cancer in this part of the colon may also cause a colicky pain that is made worse by eating. Blood mixed with the stool and bowel obstruction are other symptoms that characterize cancer at this site. Ineffectual and painful straining at stool may be a sign that the cancer is more advanced. Cancer localized to the part of the colon nearest the right side of the body may cause a generalized abdominal pain and brick red blood. It is commonly associated with iron-deficiency anemia, especially when no other cause can be identified. Cancers closer to the rectum often cause a steady gnawing pain and bright red blood coating the stool.
The following lifestyle changes have been studied in connection with colon cancer.
Most studies show that people who exercise are at lower risk of colon cancer or precancerous changes in the colon, compared with sedentary people.1, 2, 3, 4 Regular exercise appears to be one factor that will predictably lower the risk of colon cancer.
Several studies suggest that obesity in men significantly increases the risk of colon cancer5 or rectal cancer,6 though some scientists believe that obesity may only be a surrogate for other risk factors such as a high-fat diet or lack of exercise.7 Although the relationship between obesity and colon cancer risk in women is less clear, some researchers have found the increased risk of colon cancer in obese women as well as men.8
A history of smoking has been reported to significantly increase the risk of colon cancer in both men9 and women.10 Avoidance of tobacco is an important step in the prevention of colon cancer.
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The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. Self-treatment is not recommended for life-threatening conditions that require medical treatment under a doctor's care. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2015.