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Researchers collected information on diet and other health habits from 137,956 women, and followed this group for approximately ten years to see who developed type 2 diabetes. The women were 35 to 77 years old, and none had diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at the beginning of the study. The researchers accounted for other factors that can affect risk of developing type 2 diabetes, including age, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, height and weight, tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, menopausal status, use of hormones and multivitamins, and dietary intake of calories, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish, red meat, coffee, and sugar-sweetened beverages.
During the ten-year study period, 5,930 women were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Compared with women who rarely or never ate walnuts, risk of developing diabetes was
Women who regularly ate other nuts and tree nuts also were significantly less likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, however, most of this association was explained by body mass index—a measure of weight adjusted for height. In other words, nut eaters also tended to be slimmer, and this is the main reason why the women who ate nuts less frequently developed diabetes more often as a group.
This study is observational, so cannot prove cause and effect. Still, the results agree with plenty of other research, which also suggests walnuts are a healthy food, and can help maintain a healthy body. Our tips can help you work walnuts into your routine:
(J Nutr 2013; doi: 10.3945/jn.112.172171)