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The study, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, included 246 women over 65 who were randomly assigned to either an exercise program or a wellness program for 18 months. The exercise program consisted of two 60-minute supervised exercise sessions and two 20-minute home exercise sessions per week. The exercises included stretching, balance and strength training, and aerobics, and exercise intensity was increased over time. The wellness program consisted of ten-week blocks of once-a-week, one-hour, low-intensity exercise sessions alternating with ten-week blocks of rest.
The exercise program improved:
The wellness program improved:
Bone mineral density did not change in the lumbar spine and decreased in the hip in this group, and the wellness program did not improve participants’ chances of falling. The fall rate was 41% lower in the exercise group than the wellness group at the end of the study, and there were twice as many fractures due to falls in the wellness group compared to the exercise group, although this difference was not statistically significant.
“Our exercise program clearly demonstrated positive effects on the most relevant risk factors for elderly women: fracture and coronary heart disease risk factors,” said lead study author Dr. Wolfgang Kemmler of the Institute of Medical Physics in Erlangen, Germany. “These findings add to the evidence that a regular high-intensity exercise program designed for the elderly improves overall fitness, maintains bone health, and reduces fall and heart disease risk.”
If you plan to add exercise to your bone-loss prevention program, consider including the following elements:
(Arch Intern Med 2010;170:179–85)