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About one-third of the U.S. population is overweight. Excess body weight—and, in particular, male pattern obesity characterized by excess abdominal fat as opposed to fat accumulation in the thighs and buttocks— is implicated as a risk factor for many different diseases. Therefore, maintaining a healthy body weight is prudent. Unfortunately, keeping lost weight off is very difficult for most people.
(The following list is comprehensive, although not necessarily exhaustive. Contact your health care professional for more information.)
1. Soygur T, Kupeli B, Aydos K, et al. Effect of obesity on prostatic hyperplasia: its relation to sex steroid levels. Int Urol Nephrol 1996;28:55–9.
2. Carroll KK. Obesity as a risk factor for certain types of cancer. Lipids 1998;33:1055–9.
3. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968–77.
4. Schargrodsky H, Rozlosnik J, Ciruzzi M, et al. Body weight and nonfatal myocardial infarction in a case-control study from Argentina. Soz Praventivmed 1994;39:126–33.
5. Tavani A, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, La Vecchia C. Body weight and risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction among women: a case-control study from northern Italy. Prev Med 1997;26:550–5.
6. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968–77.
7. Glueck CJ, Taylor HL, Jacobs D, et al. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: association with measurements of body mass: the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 1980;62 (Suppl IV):IV-62–9.
8. Wood PD, Stefanick ML, Dreon DM, et al. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight men during weight loss through dieting as compared with exercise. N Engl J Med 1988;319:1173–9.
9. Isida K, Mizuno A, Murakami T, Shima K. Obesity is necessary but not sufficient for the development of diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1996;45:1288–95.
10. Casassus P, Fontbonne A, Thibult N, et al. Upper-body fat distribution: a hyperinsulinemia-independent predictor of coronary heart disease mortality. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;1387–92.
11. Karter AJ, Mayer-Davis EJ, Selby JV, et al. Insulin sensitivity and abdominal obesity in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women. Diabetes 1996;45:1547–55.
12. Park KS, Hree BD, Lee K-U, et al. Intra-abdominal fat is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy young men. Metabolism 1991;40:600–3.
13. Long SD, Swanson MS, O’Brien K, et al. Weight loss in severely obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994;17:372.
14. Pi-Sunyer FX. Weight and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63(suppl):426S–9S.
15. Wing RR, Marcuse MD, Blair EH, et al. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:30.
16. Henry RR, Gumbiner B. Benefits and limitations of very-low-calorie diet therapy in obese NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1991;14:802–23.
17. Shiffman ML, Sugermann HG, Kellum JH, et al. Gallstones in patients with morbid obesity. Relationship to body weight, weight loss and gallbladder bile cholesterol solubility. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1993;17:153–8.
18. Fraire AE, Johnson EH, Kim HS, Titus JL. Gallstones and obesity: observations from 352 autopsied patients. Tex Med 1990;86:26–8.
19. Alderman MH. Nonpharmacologic approaches to the treatment of hypertension. Lancet 1994;334:307–11 [review].
20. Chandra RK. Nutrition and the immune system: an introduction. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:460–3S [review].
21. Stallone DD. The influence of obesity and its treatment on the immune system. Nutr Rev 1994;52:37–50.
22. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella SI, Henson DA, et al. Immune response to obesity and moderate weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20:353–60.
23. Nieman DC, Henson DA, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL. Influence of obesity on immune function. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:294–9.
24. Scanga CB, Verde TJ, Paolone AM, et al. Effects of weight loss and exercise training on natural killer cell activity in obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1666–71.
25. Green BB, et al. Risk of ovulatory infertility in relation to body weight. Fertil Steril 1988;50:621–6.
26. Solomon CG, Manson JE. Obesity and mortality: a review of epidemiologic data. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1044S-50S.
27. Altman RD, Lozada CJ. Practice guidelines in the management of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Suppl A):22–4 [review].
28. Walker SP, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, et al. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among US men. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:1143–50.
29. Shinton R, Sagar G, Beevers G. Body fat and stroke: unmasking the hazards of overweight and obesity. J Epidemiol Comunity Health 1995;49:259–64.
30. Despres J-P, Tremblay A, Leblanc C, Bouchard C. Effect of the amount of body fat on the age-associated increase in serum cholesterol. Prev Med 1988;17:423–31.
31. Sato F, Nishi M, Kudo R, Miyake H. Body fat distribution and uterine leiomyomas. J Epidemiol 1998;8:176–80.
32. Rissanen A, Heliovaara M, Knekt P, et al. Risk of disability and mortality due to overweight in a Finnish population. BMJ 1990;301:835–37.