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The Mediterranean-style diet, consisting mostly of whole grains, fish, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, seeds, and moderate amounts of alcohol (usually as red wine), is associated with a decreased risk of many common chronic diseases and conditions, including:
The diet is also typically very low in saturated fat, dairy products, and eggs.
To see how the Mediterranean diet affected cognitive function, researchers from Spain compared two versions of the diet (one with extra olive oil and one with extra nuts) with a low-fat diet in 522 seniors as part of the PREDIMED trial. The participants were all at high risk for vascular disease because they either had type 2 diabetes or at least three vascular disease risk factors, including smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, excess weight, or a family history of early cardiovascular disease.
Each of the groups was given extensive instructions for following the diet to which they were assigned. People in the Mediterranean diet groups also received either 1 liter per week of extra virgin olive oil or 30 grams per day of raw mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts).
After an average of 6.5 years, the participants underwent neuropsychiatric testing that assessed their attention, calculation, recall, language comprehension, memory, and abstract thinking.
Both versions of the Mediterranean produced significantly higher scores on cognitive function tests compared with the low-fat diet.
The Mediterranean diet is high in antioxidant-rich and anti-inflammatory foods. “There is increasing evidence that major vascular risk factors are associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia,” said the study’s authors. Since oxidative stress and inflammation are both thought to play a role in vascular disease and many of its underlying risk factors, the protective effect of the diet on cognition might be related to improvements in these factors, the authors explained.
Besides adopting a healthier diet, give these suggestions a try to keep your brain healthy as you age.
(J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013;1–8.doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-304792)